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Khuzdul Pronouns

Subject:

ish- = 1st person singular

zu- = 2nd person singular

ta- = 3rd person singular

ka- = 1st person plural

gu- = 2nd person plural

= 3rd person plural

Object/Possesive:

-az = 1st person male singular

-at = 1st person female singular

-zi = 2nd person female singular

-zu = 2nd person male singular

-hu = 3rd person male singular

-hi = 3rd person female singular

-mâ = 1st person plural

-nu = 2nd person plural

- = 3rd person plural 

the person that = ku

no one = maku
 Khuzdul Adjectives
Comparative:

A-Adjectives:

1a2a3 (a-adjective) → u12a3

bazar (deep) → ubzar (more deep)

gamal (old) → ugmal (more old [ie older])

dalag (far) → udlag (more far [ie far away])

baraz (red) → ubraz (more red)

shakar (sharp) → ushkar (sharper)

I-Adjectives:

1i2i3 → u12i3

sigin (long) → usgin (longer)

A-I Adjectives:

1a2i3 → u12ai3

gabil (great) → ugbail (greater)

List of Adjs:

ugmal (eldest - more old)/ubzar (deeper - more deep)/udlag (far away - more far)

-ul ending:

abanul (stone)

khuzdul (dwarvish)

1i2i3

sigin (tall)

1a2a3/1a2a

baraz (red)

shakar (sharp)

tada (that)

1a2i3

gabil (great) 

Adverbs:

gagin (again) = g-g-n, gagan

sullu (whole, all) =s-l-l silil

sakhu = down s-kh

unkhai (too [more, as specified, than should be]close) = n-kh

Prepositions:

ala = this is

ana = to

au = with (instrumental)

aya (often shortened to ai) = upon

lai = behold

ni = in

ra = and

tur = through

-u = in, of

udu = from (ablative)

undu = beneath

ya = also

zai = at, by

Pronouns can be added to the end of prepositions: e.g. uduhu - from it
 Suffixes:

-ôn = patrynomical (ie son of )

-u = 1) indicates the location or the membership (ie of) 2) indicates the qualification and is the mark of the accusative

-ul = adjs.

-ûn = personal suffix (English -er, etc.)

-b = expresses a collective sense, all, the totality

-ar = king, lord, royality

G-L-B (Verb Class 1)

a12â3 = spoken language (aglâb) [{abstract} noun char. by root]

a1a2â3 = spoken languages (agalâb) [{abstract} noun char. by root plural]

a12u3 = spoken language of (aglub) (construct state)

u12u3 = spoken langauges of (uglub) (construct state plural)

 1a2a3 = to speak [to] (galab) [verb char. by root]

1a2a3 = spoke (galaba)

12a3i = speaks (glabi)

za12a3i = will speak (zaglabi)

1a23 = speak! (galb!)

 1u23 = speaker (gulb) [person char. by root]

1a2â3 = speakers (galâb) [people char. by root]

ma1a2a3a = spoken (passive) (magalaba)

ma1a23ûn = the spoken to (magalbûn)

 1i23în = a place where language is spoken (gilbîn) [place char. by root]

1i2î3în = places where language is spoken (gilîbîn) [places char. by root]

 1u23ul = of or relating to language or speech (gulbul) [of/relating to root]

 1u2u3 = to speak about (gulub)

 1e23 = a time of speech (gleb) [time char. by root]

1e2ê3 = times of speech (gelêb) [plural time char. by root]

 1i23 = word (gilb) [diminutive]

1i2î3 = words (gilîb) [diminutive plural]

1i23u = word of (gilbu) (construct state)

1i2u3 = words of (gilub) (construct state plural)

 1o23 = speech, collection of words (golb) [collective]

1o2ô3 = speechs, collections of words (golôb) [collective plural]

1o23u = speech of (golbu) (construct state)

1o2u3 = speeches of (golub) (construct state plural)

B-R-K

1u23 = ax (burk)

1a2â3 = axes (barâk)

1u23u = ax of (burku) (construct state)

1a2u3 = axes of (baruk) (construct state plural)

 1a2a3 = to cleave, to ax (barak)

1a2a3a = cleaved (baraka)

12a3i = cleaves (braki)

 1i2i3 = to crack [intrans] (birik)

1i2i3i = cracked (biriki)

12i3i = cracks (briki)

 1u23ûn = someone who axes, cleaves (burkûn)

 1a23u = crackingly, by cracking (barku)

 Verbs:

Tense:

Continous Present: (something that is going on at this moment)

12a3i (bzagi) slays

Preterit:

1a2a3a (bazaga) slayed

Future:

za12a3i (zabzagi) will slay

Passive:

ma1a2a3a (mabazaga) slayed (I was slayed - ishmabazaga)

 Mood:

ka- (ability) = ishkabzagi (I can, am able to slay)

Subjunctive:

Energetic:

Jussive:

Imperative: 1a2a3 -> 1a23 (bazg!)

satf, gurd from sataf (to step) gurud ( to have fear)
Категория: Исследования грамматики Кхуздӯла | Добавил: Naugperedhel (12.12.2008) | Автор: retroviseur E W
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