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Roland Mückstein. Khuzdul – the language of the Dwarves - 2
Roland Mückstein. Khuzdul – the language of the Dwarves
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There is no example of a one-consonantal root in the construct state in the Khuzdul corpus. We know one two-consonantal root in CS indefinite plural, dûmu, which provided the basis for the structure 1û2u. Indefinite plural CS for three-consonantal roots 1a2u3 is attested in baruk khazâd, ‘axes of the Dwarves’ (note indefinite baruk for ‘axes’ and definite khazâd for ‘the Dwarves’).
Construct State pattern pl. for verb agentive and verb abstract forms: hence iglish, of hands, CS of aglash. There is no structure for one-radical derived nouns in all the plural forms, since the plural suffixes for those nouns are inflected as well; so there simply are no one-radical derived nouns in dual, septal, indefinite and definite plural.
1.7 Gender suffixes. Khuzdul employs no basic gender structure. All nouns are basically one category, although there is a derivative suffix used to denote the gender of living beings only. For example, if a root [T-D] denotes the basic idea of a ‘(domesticated) pig’, then we could assume a female form form tâda-a (>tadâ) to mean ‘sow’. Since Khuzdul was invented by a male being (the god Aulë, who, in the first place, created only male Dwarves, by the way), it is obvious that the male gender should be the one employing the basic form of the noun; accordingly, the female suffix incorporates the indicative phoneme â, pointing away from the speaker (as opposed to î, for example, which would indicate something near to the speaker, if not the speaker himself; cf. French voici – voila, English this – that, German hier – da etc.). The suffix –a would probably come from Ancient Dwarvish –ðâ (>–hâ >–a); hence use of –ha if employed after long vowels, after o, or after e (for –u-a becomes –ô, –i-a becomes –ê, and –a-a becomes â). I have invented the consonant ð for Ancient Dwarvish as a predecessor for modern h; it would, in effect, be the Aulian equivalent of Valarin 3, yet Aulë knew the sound 3 as well and used it in his own name A3ûlêz, from which it was adopted by the Dwarves into their name for their creator.
1.8 Definite articles. Nouns in singular, dual and septal are normally indefinite; there is, however, a definite prefix thu- (or th’- before vowels), although this is only rarely used, since definite nouns are mostly obvious from the context.
1.9 Pronouns 1.9.1. Free Pronouns. Most free personal pronouns are only employed as subject. They are placed directly before the verb. The Khuzdul free personal pronouns are: 1st person singular khîl; 2nd person singular têl; 3rd person singular âl; 1st person plural nôl; 2nd person plural mên; 3rd person definite plural khâd (‘those’, also in an indicative sense); 3rd person indefinite plural khad (‘they’); and 3rd person septal khêd (‘the seven’). The broken forms khad and khêd are sometimes replaced by the sound variation dukhad (= indefinite plural khad + definite article thu-) and thêkhed (a combination of broken and sound derivation + the definite article th-, meaning, in contrast to khêd, ‘those seven’ with a certain indicative implication); but those constructs are only rarely used and considered obsolete or archaic by some.
1.9.2 Bound Pronouns. Bound pronouns have a special status in Khuzdul; their meaning depends entirely on their position. They are employed as suffixes only. The Khuzdul bound personal pronouns are: 1st person singular –helu; 2nd person singular –tî; 3rd person singular –lê; 1st person plural –nâlu; 2nd person plural –mênu; 3rd person plural –hadu; and 3rd person septal –hêdu. Those suffixes express possessive meaning when attached to a substantive (e.g. mêk-lê, ‘his hands’). They are also used as basic possessive particles if it is necessary to distinguish genitive from possessive forms in a sentence; in this case, they are attached to the genitive object as described above, but are followed by the possessive subject in the Construct State. When bound pronouns are attached to a verb or to a preposition, however, they act as objective (e.g. khazâd ai-mênu, ‘the Dwarves are upon you’).
I have modelled the pronoun structure very closely after the system of Old Hebrew, because it fits perfectly into the known corpus and the overall structure of Khuzdul as presented herein.
1.10 Verbs as Nouns. Nouns can be derived from verbs in several forms. We know of one verb agentive pattern: a1 for one-radical roots; a12(a) for two-radical roots, and a1a2â3 or u12ad for three-radical roots. For action nouns, the durative present is used to form a gerund which may act both in an adjectival and in a nominal sense; that is, u1a for one-radical roots, u1a2 for two-radical roots and 1u23(u) for three-radical roots; this is also employed as a verb abstract structure, whence gund[RM6](u), ‘the process of delving’, but also ‘underground hall’, from the verbal root gunud [G-N-D], ‘to delve underground, excavate, tunnel’. In addition, there is a verb instrumental structure used to denote the tool or object with which the action defined by the verbal root is carried out. This is 1e for one-radical roots, â1e2 for two-radical roots, and 1e2a3 for three-radical roots, whence felak, ‘a broad-bladed chisel’ from felek, ‘hew rock’ (which is a curious case, by the way, for felak has been re-adopted to verbs, as such meaning ‘to use such a tool’). The verb agentive patterns a1a2â3 and u12a3 are a conjecture from azaghâl, warrior, and uzbad, ruler. I haven’t yet found any better explanation for uzbad; so I decided to stick with alternative verb agentives. Assuming that Aulë wasn’t that great a linguist.
1.11 Adjectives as Nouns. 1a23ûn denotes, as Mr Fauskanger pointed out, a ‘person, thing or place characterized by the root meaning’. There is no hint in the corpus at what the corresponding structure for one- and two-consonantal roots might be, so I made up some patterns of my own: a1ûn for one-consonantal roots (e.g. alûn, ‘river-man’, ‘Ulmo’), and 1î2ûn for two-consonantal roots (e.g. bîlûn, ‘treasure-hold’ or ‘dear person’). 1a23ûn can also be applied as a noun agentive pattern, as detailed in the Derivation section below.
Stem Modifications. We know three types of roots: one-, two- and three-radical roots. The declinations are different for each of those types (see below). – I have invented a new type of root relation for Khuzdul, working on the basis of a structure found in some Kuschitic dialects: in some cases of stems with one or two radicals, an intensive form can be derived by prefixing the final radical in a softened form. For example, if we assume a hypothetic root [K-T] meaning ‘fire’, we could derive an intensive form [D-K-T] (final T>D and added as intensive prefix) with the possible meaning of ‘sun’. Similarly, we could derive a root [B-Zh-P], ‘gap’ or ‘cleft’ from [Zh-P], ‘opening’, ‘slit’.
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