Lisa Star. Khûzdul or Dwarvish Wordlist
This is an updated version of a list that appeared in Tyalie Tyelellieva #4 (published Feb. 1995). I would like to thank Jim Gillogly, Alberto Monteiro and Anthony Appleyard for helpful comments and suggestions and some contributions have also been made by Helge Fauskanger. A few words appear in the original texts with macrons; I have regularized these to circumflexes.
I have excluded the name Telchar because it is interpretable as Sindarin, see Talka `smith'; and Forn, the Dwarvish name of Tom Bombadil (I 347), since this is stated to be a Scandinavian word in Tolkien Compass, p. 171. I have also excluded Balin from this list, since it is a Mannish name, although it occurs in the Balin Tomb inscription, I 416.
aglâb `(spoken) language' (WJ:395).
ai-mênu `upon you', with aya and mênu (WR:20).
aya `upon' (WR:20).
Azaghâl, lord of the Dwarves of Belegost, possibly a Mannish name (S:193, SM:180-182, UT:75)
Azanûl, form probably replaced by Azanulbizar, (RS:466)
Azanulbizar `Dimrill Dale' (I 370). Said to be a translation in the Tolkien Compass p. 182. See also Azanulbizâr `Vale of Dim Streams' with the elements ZN, ul, bizar (RS:466).
baraz `red?' in Barazinbar, TI:174. Also as Baraz, it is the short name of Barazinbar, I 370.
Barazinbar `Redhorn', a mountain of Moria, Sindarin Caradhras (I 370, TI:166, 174). See baraz, inbar.
baruk `axes' (WR:20).
Baruk Khazâd! `Axes of the Dwarves!' (II 177) a battle cry.
bizar `dale, valley' in Azanulbizвr (RS:466).
BND tri-consonantal root seen in bund `head' (TI:174).
BRZ tri-consonantal root seen in baraz `red' or `ruddy' (TI:174).
bund `head' in Bundushathыr and possibly in Sharbhund (TI:174).
Bundushathûr `Head in/of Clouds', one of the mountains of Moria, in Sindarin Fanuidhol `Cloudyhead' (I 307); said to be a translation (Compass 181), with elements bund(u) and shathûr (TI:174).
Buzundush `Morthond, Blackroot' (TI:167)
Carn Dûm, language unsure, but appears to be Dwarvish since it seems to include the element dûm; LotR I 198, 202
dûm `excavations, halls, mansions', a plural or collective in Khazad-dûm (S:337) and possibly in Carn Dûm. A possible genitive form -dûmu appears in the word Khazaddûmu, q.v.
FELEK `hew rock' a root, (PM:352).
felak 1) a tool like a broad-bladed chisel, or small axe-head without haft, for cutting stone, 2) to use this tool (PM:352). We would also have to offer felak `hewer' (an agental noun) based on the entry which follows.
felakgundu `cave-hewer' (borrowed into Sindarin as Felagund, a name of Finrod, S:330, PM:352).
Fundinul `(son) of Fundin', Fundin is apparently a Mannish word, but the ending must be Dwarvish, posssibly a genitive, I 416.
gabil `great', isolated from Gabilgathol and Gabilan
Gabilân, a name of the river Gelion (WJ:336). Apparently includes gabil `great'.
Gabilgathol `Great fortress', Sindarin Belegost (S:91, 319; LR:274, WJ:389)
Gamil Zirak the Old, name of a dwarf-smith, master of Telchar of Nogrod (UT:76, 129 and the Lost Tales). Gamil looks like Old Norse gamall, and Old English gamol, both meaning `old'.
gathol `fortress', extracted from Gabilgathol
Gundabad, in Mount Gundabad (on the map in UT). Originally the language was not identified and this suggestion was based on the similarity to Dwarvish words uzbad and -gundu; however in PM:301 it is stated that Gundabad is `in origin a Khuzdul name'.
gundu `underground hall' (from root gunud) (PM:352). An element -gund(u) appears in Felak-gundu, and possibly in Gundabad and Nargûn.
GUNUD `delve underground, excavate, tunnel' (PM:352 cf. 365), stated to be a root. Cf. gundu above.
Ibun, a son of Mîm, the petty dwarf (language unsure) (S:203, UT:102)
iglishmêk, Dwarf gesture-language. (WJ:395, 402). An example of it is described in VT39:10.
inbar `horn' (referring to a mountain, as the Matterhorn) in Barazinbar (TI:174).
Kazaddûm, an earlier spelling of Khazad-dûm (RS:467).
KBL, tri-consonantal root seen in kibil `silver' in Kibil-nвla, and possibly related to Q. telpe- (TI:174).
Khazâd `Dwarves' their name for themselves, (III 519, S:91, WJ:387, SD:414, PM:24).
Khazâd ai-mкnu! `The Dwarves are upon you!', Dwarvish battle-cry. (II 177) with elements aya and mкnu, q.v..
Khazad-dûm `Mansion of the Khazвd, Dwarrowdelf' referring to Moria (I 370, S:44, 91, WJ:389, PM:24). Orignially, spelled Khazaddûm and identified with the `Dwarfmine' of Nogrod (LR:274). The spelling Khazaddûmu, appearing on Balin's Tomb, seems to be a genitive for `of Khazad-dûm' (I 416).
kheled `glass' in Kheled-zâram `Mirrormere', (S:360). The language is identified as Khûzdul and said to have been borrowed into Sindarin as heledh (RS:466).
Kheled-zâram `Mirrormere, glass-lake' also written Kheledzâram (I 370, S:360, Compass p. 190), and translated `glass pool' RS:466.
Khîm, a son of Mîm, the petty dwarf (language unsure) (S:203, UT:101).
Khûzdul `Dwarvish, the language of the Dwarves' III 488; also spelled Khuzdul, S:337.
Khuzûd `Dwarves' their name for themselves, replaced by Khazвd (LR:274, 278; WJ:205).
kibil `silver' with a tri-consonantal root K-B-L (TI:174).
Kibil-nâla `Silverlode' (I 371), the river Celebrant with kibil and nвla (TI:174, 175).
Mahal `Aule' the Dwarvish name for him. (S:44, 339). One imagines that it must mean `smith' but there is no confirmation.
Mazarbul `(of?) Records'. (I 418, Letters:186). The -ul may be a genitive ending.
MBR, tri-consonantal root seen in inbar `horn' (TI:174).
mênu `you' said to be "acc. pl." (WR:20)
Mîm, a Petty-Dwarf, language unsure, (S:202, UT:97).
-nad element occurring in Zigilnad, another name of the river Celebrant `Silverlode' (PM:279, 286).
nâla `path, course, rivercourse or bed' in Kibil-nâla, (TI:174).
Narag-zâram `Black Pool?' with root elements N-R-G, (RS:466).
Nargûn `Mordor'; with root elements N-R-G `black' (RS:466)
NRG `black' tri-consonantal root seen in Narag-zâram and Nargûn (RS:466). [This may possibly have a form *narag as an independent word.]
Nulukkhizdîn `Nargothrond' (S:230, WJ:180), misspelt Nulukkizdîn in S:230. Replaces earlier Nulukkhizdun.
Rukhs `Orc', pl. Rakhâs (WJ:391).
Sharbhund `Bald Hill?', petty-dwarves' name for Amon Rudh (UT:98). [The first element is similar to the Orkish or Black Speech word sharkû, source of the epithet Sharkey, a name of Saruman and said to mean `old man' III 511. If Dwarvish and Orkish are related, shar- might mean `bald-' a suitable epithet for an old man. The second element is similar to bund(u) `head' which is a common metaphor for `hill' as may be seen in Quenya nуla, and S. dфl; (Etym. NDOL-).]
shathûr `cloud(s)', basic element probably `cloud', possibly plural. Shathûr is also a short name of Bundushathur `Cloudyhead', one of the mountains of Moria (I 370, TI:174)
ShThR `cloud(s)' a tri-consonantal root seen in shathûr, Bundushathûr, (TI:174).
sigin `long' in Sigin-tarag, q.v. (PM:321)
Sigin-tarag `Longbeards' one of the Seven Houses of the Dwarves, (PM:321)
tarag `beard(s)' in Sigin-tarag, q.v. (PM:321).
Tharkûn, name of Gandalf among Dwarves, said to mean `Staff-man' (II 353, UT:397). This name is interpretable in Sindarin and should perhaps be excluded from this list.
Tumunzahar `Hollowbold', or Nogrod, a city of the Dwarves in the Blue Mountains, (S:91, 344, UT:389). It seems to have the elements tumun `hollow' (similar to Q. tumbu `hollow, swell') and zahar `bold, a building' (a noun form).
-u `in/of' in Bund-u-shathûr `head in/of clouds' (TI:174). This may be a genitive marker, as noted by Jim Allan, ItE:164.
Udushinbar, an earlier name of Bundushathûr (TI:174)
ûl `streams' in Azanulbizar (RS:466)
-ul, adjectival suffix possibly, in the words Khûzdul `Dwarvish', Fundinul `[son] of Fundin' and in Mazarbul. This was also noted by Jim Allan, ItE:164.
Uruktharbun `Moria?' language identified as Khûzdul. (RS:458, 465). It seems to have been replaced by Khazad-dûm, though since it seems to have an element meaning `ork' in it, it may be a name of the location which acknowledges the then current control by another group.
uzbad `lord' used of the Dwarf Kings of Moria. (I 416).
zâram `glass' (in Narag-zâram and Kheled-zaram, RS:466) or `lake' per Jim Allan, ItE:164. These two meanings may not be in conflict, since a pool of water in an underground cavern has a remarkable property of reflection and so might come to be a routine metaphor used to mean `glass'.
ZGL, tri-consonantal root seen in zigil `spike' [but see Zigilnad], (TI:174)
zigil `spike (smaller and more slender than a horn)' in Zirak-zigil `Silver-spike' (TI:174).
Zigilnad, an earlier or alternative name of Kibil-nala, the Celebrant, or Silverlode, where zigil seems to mean `silver', (PM:279, 286).
zirak `silver' in Zirak-zigil `Silvertine, Silverspike'. [It says in LotR (I 413) that "the Dwarves have a name for it [mithril] which they do not tell." Nevertheless, this may be it, since it seems to mean `grey', (see ZRK), and this is an element in the meaning of the word mithril. Otherwise, we have two words for `silver (metal)'.] Zirak is also a short name of Zirak-zigil (TI:174) and is found in the name Gamil Zirak.
Zirakinbar `Silverhorn' (see inbar), replaced by Zirak-zigil `Silvertine'. (SD:45).
Zirak-zigil `Silvertine', one of the mountains of Moria (Sindarin Celebdil) I 370, TI:174.
ZN `dark, dim' bi-consonantal root seen in Azanulbizar, (RS:466). [This may possibly have a form *azan as an independent word.]
ZRK `silver, for its grey color' tri-consonantal root seen in zirak, Zirak-zigil, (TI:174).
There are several other words known only from the runes that may be used to write them. These include the ampersand, Rune #60 in the Chart of the Angerthas Moria in the LotR Appendix. Also runes are known for three numbers from the Pictures of J. R. R. Tolkien.
3 Rune #17 = ks
4 Rune #51 = inverted o with macron
5 Rune #22 = n.
References: Please see the linguistic bibliography for the books referred to.
One of the few words coined in Dwarvish is Narguzbad `Dark Lord, Morgoth' formed by Alberto Monteiro using standard methods of word formation(TT4:14).