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Roland Mückstein. Khuzdul – the language of the Dwarves - 3
Roland Mückstein. Khuzdul – the language of the Dwarves
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Barazinbar: a compound of baraz [B-R-Z], red, and inbar [M-B-R], horn or mountain(!). The original singular form of [M-B-R] would probably have been mibar according to the pattern 1i2a3; but this was changed to imbar in ancient times due to the influence of Elvish imbar, ‘The Habitation’, *‘home’ (WJ:419), which the Dwarves of course equalled with ‘mountain’. The dissimilation of mb>nb, thus forming modern inbar, may be due to the ‘semi-adopted’ nature of the word (for the Dwarves were quite hesitant at changing their own language, as is well known).
Mazarbul: known from ‘the chamber of Mazarbul’, translated by Tolkien as ‘the chamber of Records’; however, I would not accept this as a literal translation, thus equalling mazarbul with ‘records’, due to the strange structure of the word. If, as Mr Fauskanger suggested, the last element be the suffix –ul (see below), we would be faced with a four-consonantal plural word in the unlikely form 1a2a34 or, as Mr Fauskanger put it, a past participle ma1a23 of [Z-R-B]. I, for my part, choose to render mazarbul as a compound of mazar (indefinite plural of [M-Z-R] meaning something like ‘tales’, ‘stories’) and bul (another indefinite plural, of [B-L], denoting a ‘treasure’ or ‘valued item’).
Nargûn: This is the adjectival root [N-R-G], ‘black’, in the agentive pattern 1a23ûn (see above), meaning ‘Black Land’ (Mordor). Another example of the same pattern is tharkûn, ‘staff-man’ (Gandalf) from the radicals [Th-R-K], staff).
Tharkûn: cf. Nargûn
–ul: This is an adjectival ending applied to nouns that end in a consonant; we do not know what form would be applied if the suffix was used after a vowel, but I suggest *–dul (since –ul probably evolved from –ûl, which in turn could be a worn-down form of *–ðul; hence Tolkien’s spelling Khuzdûl in some places). In addition, -ul is used to form patronymics, as attested in Fundinul, ‘son of Fundin’. Obviously, the suffix is applied to the genetive object here (e.g. in patronymics to the father rather than to the son).
Gundabad: Gund(u), underground hall, + abad, sacred or holy. In this case, the adjective follows the noun it refers to; this is not so in other compounds like sharbhund, kibilnâla etc. The ‘correct’ form would be abad-gundu, ‘holy mountain’; but Gundabad is an archaic word, and the structures may have changed since that time. [Or else gund could in fact be the gerund structure. I haven’t quite sorted this out yet.]
Aglâb and Iglishmek: Verb agentive of [G-L], to speak: agl(a) (pattern a12(a), mentioned above). –ab, definite plural suffix for derived nouns; thus forming agla-ab>aglâb, the words, ‘spoken language’. –ish, indefinite plural suffix for derived nouns; whence aglash, words; Construct State thereof iglish, + mêk, dual of [M-K], hands = iglishmêk, words of hands, ‘gesture-language’.
Sharbhund: Adjective shar, bald, + singular of archaic root [Bh-N-D], which eventually evolved to [B-N-D]. [The most obvious solution. I just couldn’t think of anything better.]
Derivation: 1a23ûn, noun agentive pattern; congruent with adjective agentive pattern (for one- and two-consonantal roots, see above). This is only valid for genuine nouns and adjectives. For derived nouns and adjectives, 1e2a3 is employed.
1e2a3 attested in felak (felak-gundu, ‘cave-hewer’).
Wordlist (by no means comprehensive): Abad [B-D], adj sacred, holy
*Alûn [L], river-man, Ulmo; = [L] noun agentive
Aya/ai, prep upon, over
Azaghâl [Z-Gh-L], warrior; = [Z-Gh-L] verb agentive
Baraz [B-R-Z], adj red
*Bîlûn [B-L], treasure-hold, dear person; = [B-L] noun agentive
Bizar [B-Z-R], valley, vale
*Bizhap [B-Zh-P], rift, ravine; cf. zhup
Bâla [B-L], story
Bund [B-N-D], head
Burk [B-R-K], axe
Buzun [B-Z-N], adj cut in deep, located in a hollow or depression
*Dukt [D-K-T], sun; cf. kut
Dum [D-M], delving, (artificial) cave, mine
Dush [D-Sh], gloom, darkness
Êkhezd [Kh-Z-D], seven; cf. khuzd
Felak [F-L-K], 1) verb to use a tool like a broad-bladed chisel 2) a small axe; cf. felek
Felek [F-L-K], verb hew rock; cf. felak
Gabil [G-B-L], adj great, big
Gamil [G-M-L], old/wizened Dwarf
Gathol [G-Th-L], fortress
Gimil [G-M-L], adj old, experienced
Gund(u) [G-N-D], underground hall
Inbar [M-B-R], antiquated poetic form of mibar
Kheled [Kh-L-D], adj glassy, mirror-like
Khuld [Kh-L-D], glass
Khuzd [Kh-Z-D], Dwarf; cf. êkhezd
Khuzdul [Kh-Z-D], 1) adj dwarvish 2) Dwarvish (of language); = [Kh-Z-D] sg + adj ending –ul
Kibil, adj silver (of colour; adapted from Sindarin celeb); = zigil
*Kut [K-T], fire (symbolic); cf. dukt
Li [L], river, stream
Mahal [M-H-L], dual only creating/protecting Hands, later also Creator (Aulë)
Mazar, adj treasured, highly valued
Mazarbul [M-Z-R] [B-L], record (literally: treasured stories); = [M-Z-R] + [B-L] ind pl
Mênu, pron you acc pl
Mibar [M-B-R], horn, tip; = inbar
Narag [N-R-G], adj black
Nargûn [N-R-G], Black Land; = [N-R-G] adj agentive
Rukhs [R-Kh-S], ork
Sâsa [S-S], horse
Shar [Sh-R], adj bald
Sigin [S-G-N], adj long
Tharkûn [Th-R-K], staff-man; = [Th-R-K] noun agentive
Thirak [Th-R-K], magical or wandering staff
Turg [T-R-G], beard
Uzbad [Z] [B-D], ruler, lord; [Z-B-D] verb agentive
Zughul [Z-Gh-L], verb battle, wage war
*Zhup [Zh-P], cut, cleft, ravine; cf. Bizhap
Zigil [Z-G-L], adj silver (of colour); = kibil
Zirak [Z-R-K], tine, tip (of a mountain)
[RM1]Th’-, bestimmter Artikel; also th’ussu uzbad = das Pferd des Königs (nicht irgendein Pferd des Königs),
[RM2]Baraz, rot, Adjektiv, dem Nomen [S-S] im CS vorgestellt; also baraz ussu uzbad = das rote Pferd des Königs,
[RM3]CS von [S-S], Pferd; bezogen auf uzbad, also ussu uzbad = das Pferd des Königs,
[RM4]-lê = Possessivpartikel, gefolgt von [B-N-D], Kopf, im CS; also ussu uzbad-lê bundu (oder auch ussu-uzbad-lê bundu) = der Kopf des königlichen Pferdes,
[RM5]Gabil, groß = Adjektiv als Nomen verwendet; und X(Subjekt) Y = X ist Y; also ussu uzbad-lê bundu gabil = der Kopf des königlichen Pferdes ist groß, [RM6]So take careful note of how you inflect! If the form 1u23 is a genuine noun, you inflect it by the standard tables listed above; if it is a gerund construction, however, use the ‚derived nouns‘ table. For example, CS of gund is not gundu but ignid!
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