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Helge Kåre Fauskanger. Khuzdul - the secret tongue of the Dwarves - 2



(originally based on a list compiled by Lisa Star that appeared in Tyalië Tyelelliéva #4 p.22; she in turn thanked Jim Gillogly, Alberto Monteiro and Anthony Appleyard for helpful comments and suggestions). I have excluded Balin, which, though it appears in the Balin Tomb inscription, is a Mannish name. So is Forn, a name of Tom Bombadil used by the Dwarves. On the other hand, I have included Fundinul, though only the ending -ul is actually Khuzdul. I have excluded Dushgoi "Minas Morgul", which is evidently Orkish, but nonetheless seems to include an element dush *"dark, black" that also occurs in Buzundush, the Dwarvish name of Morthond.
, "(spoken) language" (WJ:395). This evidently contains the same radicals G-L as in iglishmêk.
, "upon you" (LotR2/III ch. 7, Appendix F), with ai, a reduced form of aya (q.v.), and mênu (WR:20)
, name of the lord of the Dwarves of Belegost (Silmarillion ch. 20)
, the plural form of uzn (q.v.), cited in The Lord of the Rings: A Reader's Companion (RC) by Wayne G. Hammond and Christina Scull, p. 269.
[Azanûl, a form Tolkien seems to have replaced with Azanulbizar (RS:466). See ûl.]
, "Dimrill Dale" (LotR1/II ch. 4). In A Tolkien Compass p. 182, Tolkien states that "the Common Speech form is an accurate translation: the valley of the dim (overshadowed) rills that ran down the mountainside". Compare RS:466: Azanulbizar "Vale of Dim Streams" with the elements Z-N, ûl, bizar (q.v.) As discussed in the entry bizar, Tolkien experimented with various interpretations of the different elements, though the whole was to somehow express "Dimrill Dale".
, "upon" (WR:20). Reduced form ai in ai-mênu "upon you".
, "red, ruddy" (for gloss, see RC p. 267). In Barazinbar, TI:174. Baraz "?Red One", short name of Barazinbar. (LotR1/II ch.3)
, "Redhorn", one of the mountains over Moria, Sindarin Caradhras (LotR1/II ch. 3).
, "axes of" (WR:20), Baruk Khazâd! "Axes of the Dwarves!" (Appendix F). Possibly the construct state plural of *burk "axe".
, "dale, valley" (RS:466) in Azanulbizar. Different interpretation in RC:269: there the word is explained as being "probably" a plural form bizâr (notice long vowel) derived from a stem B-Z-R "a small stream (running down from a spring)". Tolkien explored various possibilities regarding the exact interpretation of the elements occurring in the name Azanulbizar; it was to somehow mean "Dimrill Dale". According to the (tentative) interpretation given in RC, azan is a plural form "shadows, dimnesses", ul is a genitive marker and -bizar means "streams, rills", hence "The rills of the shadows", whereas the word "dale" is understood (the full name being duban azanulbizar, but duban "dale, valley" is left out so that the place was simply called Azanulbizar). The alternative interpretation given elsewhere however allows the whole phrase "Dimrill Dale" to be packed into the word Azanulbizar with no need to assume that the "dale" element is left out and understood: it is then the bizar part that means "dale" (singular?), and "rill(s)" or "streams" corresponds to the middle element ul, which then represents a plural form ûl of such meaning (RS:466) rather than being a genitive marker.
B-N-D, radicals of bund, q.v. (TI:174)
, radicals of baraz, q.v. (TI:174)
, "head" (TI:174). In Bundushathur, q.v.
, "Cloudyhead", one of the mountains above Moria, in Sindarin Fanuidhol (LotR1/II ch. 3); the elements are Bund-u-shathur "Head in/of Clouds" (TI:174).
, "Morthond, Blackroot" (TI:167)
, radicals of bizar, q.v. (RC:269)
, radicals of duban, q.v. (RC:269)
"valley", according to the explanation of Azanulbizar "Dimrill Dale" that denies that bizar (q.v.) is itself the word for "dale, valley" (RC:269). By this alternative interpretation, the full name of the vale is duban azanulbizar, but the initial element may be left out and understood.
, "excavations, halls, mansions", either a true plural or a collective singular (in Khazad-dûm, q.v.)
, "hew rock" (stated to be a root; the radicals are evidently *F-L-K) (PM:352)
, 1) (used as noun) a tool like a broad-bladed chisel, or small axe-head without haft, for cutting stone, 2) (used as verb) to use this tool (PM:352)
, also assimilated felaggundu "cave-hewer" (name given to Finrod because of his skill in lighter stone-carving, adapted to Sindarin as Felagund). (PM:352) This evidently obsoletes the entry PHELEG in the Etymologies (LR:381), where Tolkien provided an Elvish etymology for this name.
, translated "son of Fundin", is literally perhaps a kind of adjective derived from this name (which is itself Mannish, not Khuzdul). In RC:269, it is said that -ul is a genitive ending of patronymics. See -ul.
, "great", isolated from Gabilgathol, q.v.
, a name of the river Sirion (WJ:336). Apparently includes gabil "great", cf. Gabilgathol.
, "Great fortress", Sindarin Belegost (Silm ch. 10, LR:274)
Gamil Zirak
, name of a dwarf-smith, master of Telchar of Nogrod (UT:76). Suggested interpretations are "Old Silver" or "Old Spike"; see zirak.
, "fortress", isolated from Gabilgathol, q.v.
, "underground hall" (from root gunud) (PM:352). Does a form of this noun occur in the name of the mountain Gundabad, stated to be "in origin a Khuzdul name"? (PM:301)
, "delve underground, excavate, tunnel" (PM:352 cf. 365), stated to be a root. Cf. gundu above.
, the name of one of Mîm's sons (Silm. ch 21, UT:102)
, a gesture-code used by the Dwarves. (WJ:395) Cf. aglâb.
, "horn"; the radicals are given as M-B-R, note apparent dissimilation mb > nb. (TI:174). In Barazinbar, q.v.
, unorthodox spelling of Khazad-dûm (RS:467). It should hardly be taken as an indication that k and kh are not distinct phonemes after all.
, radicals of kibil, the word for silver (TI:174)
, "Dwarves", their name for themselves (Appendix F). Short pl. form Khazad in the compound Khazad-dûm. Singular Khuzd, q.v.
, "Dwarrowdelf", Moria (LotR1/II ch. 3). See dûm.
Khazâd ai-mênu!
, "The Dwarves are upon you!", Dwarvish battle-cry. (Appedix F)
, "glass" in Kheled-zâram "Mirrormere", lit. "glasslake" (Silmarillion Appendix, entry khelek-; see also A Tolkien Compass p. 190)
, the name of one of Mîm's sons. (Silm. ch. 21)
"Dwarf", pl. Khazad (RC:269). Since other sources indicate that the plural is rather Khazâd (q.v.) with a long second vowel, the form Khazad cited in RC:269 may be the form occurring in compounds like Khazad-dûm where the vowel is shortened (possibly because it is unaccented here).
"Dwarvish", also spelt Khuzdûl (e.g. VT48:24, PM:358). Obviously includes Khuzd "Dwarf". See -ul.
[Khuzûd, "Dwarves", changed by Tolkien to Khazâd. (LR:274, 278)]
*Kh-Z-D, radicals in words having to do with dwarves and dwarvishness, in Khazâd "the Dwarves" (sg. Khuzd), in Khuzdul "Dwarvish" and evidently also in Nulukkhizdîn "Nargothrond" (Silm. ch. 21)
, "silver" (TI:174). Radicals K-B-L. TI:174 suggests that this word is related to Quenya telpë, but the actual borrowing must rather be from Sindarin celeb (and the borrowing must be fairly late, for even at the Old Sindarin stage, the word was kelepe [LR.367] with no change of post-vocalic p to b; the most primitive form was kyelepê). Khuzdul kibil reverses the order of the two last consonants of celeb.
, "Silverlode" (LotR1/II ch. 3), the river Celebrant. The separate elements kibil, nâla (q.v.) are discussed in TI:174, 175. Curiously, the Khuzdul name of this river is given as Zigilnâd in PM:279, 286. PM:275 indicates that Tolkien in one draft for a LotR appendix used the name Kibil-nâla to refer to the Mirrormere, but changed it to Kheled-zâram, the name used in the main text of LotR. Christopher Tolkien dismisses this as a "slip without significance" (PM:286).
, Dwarvish name of Aulë (Silm. ch. 2)
", (of?) Records". The Chamber of Mazarbul is equated with "the Chamber of Records". (LotR1/II ch. 5, Letters:186) If -ul is a Khuzdul adjectival or genitival ending, "of" in the translation may be strictly superfluous.
, the radicals of inbar "horn" (note apparent dissimilation mb > nb). (TI:174)
, "you (acc. pl.)" (WR:20)
, name of a Petty-Dwarf (Silm. ch. 21)
-nâd, element occurring in Zigilnâd, another name of the river Celebrant (Silverlode): PM:279, 286. This river is elsewhere called Kibil-nâla in Khuzdul, so nâd would have to mean the same as nâla, q.v.
-nâla: According to TI:175, the meaning of this word is not known, but if the Khuzdul name Kibil-nâla has the same meaning as Sindarin Celebrant, Silverlode, it may be assumed to mean "path, course, rivercourse or bed". (TI:174)
, "? Black Pool". Includes radicals N-R-G, q.v. (RS:466)
, "Mordor"; includes radicals N-R-G "black" (RS:466)
, radicals of the word for "black" (vowels not given); in Nargûn "Mordor, Blackland". (RS:466) The independent word "black" may be *narag, compare baraz "red" from B-R-Z.
, "Nargothrond" (WJ:180), misspelt Nulukkizdîn in Silm ch. 21 (see WJ:180, where Christopher Tolkien admits that this spelling is wrong). Changed by Tolkien from Nulukhizidûn. Apparently includes the radicals Kh-Z-D"dwarf". By one suggestion, the initial element nulu- could be related to -nâla, q.v.
, "Orc", pl. Rakhâs (WJ:391)
, form listed along with sulûn as a possible name derived from the base S-L-N "fall, descend swiftly" (VT48:24). The derived names are not themselves explained, but would denote something that performs this verbal action. Tolkien was trying to explain the origin of the name of the river Lhûn or Lune, and a Dwarvish origin was among the possibilities listed (a name of such a meaning would fit because "the upper course of the Lune was very steep and swift"). The Sindarin form Lhûn would, within this scenario, presumably arise like this: Salôn or sulûn is borrowed into Sindarin at an early stage, and the first vowel is lost, leaving *slôn or *slûn; this regularly yields Lhûn in later Sindarin. This provides an interesting hint about how Khuzdul words are accented: The first vowel of salôn or sulûn would almost certainly be unaccented if it is to be lost like this, suggesting that it is rather the long vowel in the final syllable that receives the stress. The same may be true for other words with a long vowel in the last syllable.
, ?"Bald Hill", Petty-Dwarvish name of Amon Rûdh (UT:98). Is bhund just a variant form of bund, q.v.? Or is this a compound sharb + hund? This would be easier to analyze within the basic structure of triliteral roots used in Khuzdul: radicals *Sh-R-B + *H-N-D.
"cloud(s)", Shathûr short name of Bundushathûr, "Cloudyhead", one of the mountains above Moria (LotR1/II ch. 3, TI:174)
"long" in Sigin-tarâg, q.v. (PM:321) If Khuzdul adjectives agree in number, this may be a plural form (or the basic form may be preferred in compounds).
, "the Longbeards" (PM:321)
, radicals of a verb "fall, descend swiftly"; see salôn (VT48:24)
, see salôn
, "beards" in Sigin-tarâg, q.v. (PM:321). Sg. *turg?
, Dwarvish name of Gandalf, said to mean "Staff-man" (LotR2/IV ch. 5, UT:353)
"Hollowbold", Dwarvish name of Nogrod (Silm ch. 10)
, "in/of" in Bundushathur, Bund-u-shathur "Head in/of Clouds" (TI:174), Uzbad Khazad-dûmu "Lord of Moria" (LotR1/II ch. 4)
[Udushinbar, a form Tolkien seems to have replaced with Bundushathûr (TI:174)]
, "streams" in Azanulbizar (RS:466). See bizar for the alternative interpretation that would make the middle element of Azanulbizar a genitive marker rather than a word for "streams" (corresponding to the "rill" element of the name "Dimrill Dale"). The shorter name Azanûl; is however only meaningful if ûl is a noun: *"Dim-streams". A genitive marker would not refer to anything here. Comparing the names Azanûl and Azanulbizar may suggest that Khuzdul does not permit a long vowel before a consonant cluster.
-ul, possible adjectival suffix (Khuzdul "Dwarvish", Fundinul "[son] of Fundin"). According to RC:269, -ul is a genitive ending of patronymics, and one interpretation of Azanulbizar also associates it with the middle element of this name (something that would indicate that it is not only used in patronymics); see bizar and compare Mazarbul. Since Khuzdul is spelt Khuzdûl in some late sources, did Tolkien eventually distinguish an adjectival ending -ûl from a genitive ending -ul?
[Uruktharbun, a name of Moria? (possibly replaced by Khazad-dûm) (RS:458)]
, "Lord" (LotR1/II ch 4). Swedish researcher Magnus Åberg has suggested that the initial u could be a conjunction, so that Balin Fundinul uzbad Khazad-dûmu would actually mean *"Balin son of Fundin and Lord of Moria". If so, there will be some other vowel following the z when the word occurs without u-, since Khuzdul does not tolerate initial consonant clusters (VT48:24).
"dimness, shadow", pl. azan (RC:269). Radicals Z-N (RS:466). In RC the singular is actually cited as "uzu", but the plural form indicates that uzn is the proper reading (lowercase n and u being identical in Tolkien's handwriting; compare Sindarin nin being misquoted as "niu" in Letters:279, where there is no question about the proper reading since nin occurs in the LotR itself). The example of Khuzd pl. Khazâd and Rukhs pl. Rakhâs would indicate that the plural form should properly be *azân with a long â, but the form azan occurs in the compound Azanulbizar, where the second vowel is apparently unaccented and therefore (?) shortened. Compare Khazad as a short form of Khazâd in the compound Khazad-dûm, a word that is possibly to be accented on the final syllable.
, "lake, pool" (in Narag-zâram and Kheled-zâram, RS:466)
, radicals of zigil (TI:174)
, either "spike (smaller and more slender than a horn)" (TI:174) or a word for "silver" (TI:175) - the compound Zirak-zigil is said to mean "Silver-spike", but it is not entirely clear which element means "silver" and which means "spike". According to Tolkien's latest explanation, zigil means "silver", and in accordance with this, Zigilnâd is listed as a name of the Silverlode (Celebrant) in one source (PM:279, 286). However, TI:174, 175 clearly implies that the name Kibil-nâla (occurring in LotR itself) is the Dwarvish designation of this river. See Kibil-nâla.
, either "silver" (colour not metal, cf. kibil) or "spike"; see zigil. Since Tolkien's final decision seems to have been that in the name Zirak-zigil "Silvertine, Silverspike" it is the zigil part that means "silver", zirak must mean "spike" (TI:174 vs. 175). Zirak (short name of Zirak-zigil, q.v.) would mean either "Silver" or (more probably) "Spike". (LotR1/II ch. 3) Perhaps also in Gamil Zirak, q.v.
[Zirakinbar, "Silverhorn" (see inbar), form Tolkien evidently replaced by Zirak-zigil "Silvertine". (SD:45)]
, "Silvertine", one of the mountains over Moria (Sindarin Celebdil).
, radicals of words for "dark, dim" (RS:466). In Azanulbizar, q.v. According to RC:269, the actual word derived from this root is uzn (q.v.), of which azan in this place-name is a plural form.
, radicals of zirik, q.v. (TI:174)

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