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JIM ALLAN. AN INTRODUCTION TO ELVISH AND TO OTHER TONGUES... Khuzdul.
JIM ALLAN. "AN INTRODUCTION TO ELVISH AND TO OTHER TONGUES AND PROPER NAMES AND WRITING SYSTEMS OF THE THIRD AGE OF THE WESTERN LANDS OF MIDDLE-EARTH AS SET FORTH IN THE PUBLISHED WRITINGS OF PROFESSOR JOHN RONALD REUEL TOLKIEN"

KHUZDUL
KHUZDUL WAS THE SECRET SPEECH of the Dwarves which they did not willingly teach to those of other races, even to friends. After the destructions of their ancient dwellings the Dwarves used more and more the languages of those Men among whom they dwelt, and Khuzdul ceased to be a tongue for everyday use, but rather a tongue of lore and learning, learned after infancy. There are not sufficient examples of Khuzdul published to allow a listing of the sounds which might be considered complete. But the following incomplete list has been com­piled, using Tolkien's orthography: a, ai, b, d, e, g, i, k, kh, l, m, n, r, sh, th, u, &, In Khuzdul kh and th are aspirates, that is t or к followed by an h, more or less as in backhand, outhouse' (111:395), represented by [th] and [kh] in the International Phonetic Alphabet, not by [t] and [к]. Sh would represent a sound similar to the [J] represented by English eh. 'Some Dwarves are said to have used a back or uvular r' (111:392), that is, [r], beard in French and many German dialects. The exact pronunciation of the vowels is not given. They would not have differed too widely from their counterparts in the Eldarin languages.
Khuzdul, like the Semitic languages of our own time, is based on a system of triliteral roots. That is, the roots are not themselves pronounceable words, but consist of three consonants without vowels. In English-and other Indo-European languages-forms are created mainly be tbe addition of prefixes and suffixes to the root. In the Semitic lan­guages prefixes and suffixes are used, but only along with insertion and changing of vowels between the three root con­sonants. For example, from the Hebrew root MLK 'royal' der­ives melek 'king', malk 'king of, malak 'he reigned', mal-kah 'queen', molek 'reigning, ruler', timlok 'she will reign1, m"lukah 'kingship', mamlik 'making reign', malkut 'royalty', mamlakah 'kingdom', and numerous other forms. In Khuzdul we can isolate the root KhZD, «hence Khazad, 'Dwarves1, Khazad- 'Dwarvish', and Khuzdul, the name of the Dwarvish language. The three basic consonants of a root can be isolated in many of the other forms: BRZ in Baraz , KhLD in kheled, probably ZRB in mazarbul. The only example of any sentences in Khuzdul are Baruk Khazad Khazad aimenu! 'Axes of the Dwarves! The Dwarves are upon you!' (111:411). From this it can be seen that the genitive can be indicated by placing the genitive, noun fol­lowing the main noun, that the definite article is lacking, and that the present tense of the verb 'to be' is omitted. The rest of the corpus is mainly names, and even when we possess a corresponding Common Speech or Sindarin name we cannot be sure the meanings correspond, save where Tolkien tells us they do.
The following is a complete listing of published Khuzdul forms:
aimenu, prep. + prn. 2nd pl. upon you.
Azanulbizar, nm. place 'Valley of the din (overshadowed) rill', rendered 'Dimrill Dale1 in Соmmоп Speech. / S. Nanduhirion/ I:296;5;182. See -ul
Barazinbar, nn. mountain see Barazinbar. 1:296. Barazinbar. nm. mountain rendered 'Red-horn' in Common Speech. I S. Caradhras/ Тhе shortened form Baraz is also used. I: 296.
baruk, n. pl. axes. 111:411.
BunduShathur, nm. mountain 'Cloudy-head'. / S. Fanuidhol/ The shortened form Shathur is Also used. I:I96;C:182.
dum, n. (gen. dumu) mansion. / Q. •marde, B. -rond/ I:!96,333Ј;II1;415.
Khazad, adj. of Dwarves. 111:415. Khazad n. pl. Dwarves. 111:411.
Khazad-dum. nm. place (gen. Khazad-dumu) 'Dwarf-mansion', rendered Phurunargian 'Dvarf-delving' in archaic Westron1. named Moria 'Black Chasm' in Sindarin. I:296,333t;III:415;C:lS3.
kheled, n. glass. C:190. Kheled-zaram, nm. lake 'Glass-lake', rendered 'Mirrormere' in Cоmmоп Speech. I:296;G:190.
Khuzdul, n. 'Dwarvlsh', the language of the Dwarves. 111:392,404. See -ul.
Кibil-nalа, nт. river The Common Speech паmе is 'Sllverlode' translated from S. Celebrant. Cf. S. celeb. I: 296;G:191
mazarbul, n. pl. records. I:335f.
Shathur, nm. mountain see Bundushathur 1:296.
Tharkun, nm. pers. name used by Gandalf among The Dwarves. May be related to Q. 'tarcil. 11:279.
-U, gen. indicator of. / Q. -o/ See Khazad-dumu.
-ul, edj. suff,17? See Azanulbizar, Khuzdul Fundinul' I:333
Zaram, n. lake. G:190.
Zirak nm. mountain see Zirak-Zigil. 1:296. from S. Celebdil. Тhе shortened form Zlrak is also used. I:296;G:191.
Zirak-Zigil , nm. mountain The Common Speech name is 'Silvertine'
translated Balin's tomb inscription (1:333) la the sole example of Khuzdul written in certar. It transliterates as follows: BALIN F U ND I N U L UZBAD KHAZAD DUMU - BALINSANOVFUNDINLORDOVMORIA- Balin and Fundin are, of course, not the true secret Khuzdul names of Balin and his father, but their outer names, in the Northern Speech. See p. 220f.
Категория: Трактаты | Добавил: Naugperedhel (12.12.2008) | Автор: Jim Allan E W
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