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The Annals of Ennor. Laurefindë o Imladris. Khuzdul

The Annals of Ennor. Laurefindë o Imladris. Khuzdul.

Khuzdûl Pronunciation

In Khuzdûl, like the Eldarin languages, there appears to be no silent letters. Every syllable is fully heard, except when two letters form a combination with a sound of its own. These English-letter combinations are actually distinct letters of their own in the Angwar alphabet, therefore each of these will be treated as its own entity in this document. If any combination is not listed here, pronounce each letter separately.

Longer versions of vowels (ex. ú and û from u) are not included in this list. They are pronounced by drawing out the sound of the vowel; in length u < ú < û.

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A: "ah"; as in "father", not "rather"

AI: "ey"; long a sound

AU/AW: "ah-ow"; slightly drawn-out and dulled

B: "buh"

D: "duh"; sharply spoken with the tip of the tongue

DH: "dduh"; dully spoken with the flat of the tongue

E: "eh"; short, not long

EA: "ee-eh"; like in the English word "ear"

EU/EW: "eh-oo"; a mix of shortened E and U sounds

F: "fuh"

G: "guh"; sharply spoken

GH: "ghuuh"; dully spoken and slightly gutteral

GHW: "ghwuuh"; dully spoken and slightly gutteral

GW: "gwuh"; sharply spoken

H: "huh"

HW: "hwuh"

HY: "hyuh"

I: "ih"; short i sound in all place except when ending a word, then pronounced "ee"

J: "juh"

K: "kuh"

KH: "kghuuh"; slightly gutteral K

KHW: "kghwuh"

L: "ul"

LH: "lhuh"

LL: "ulll"; drawn-out l sound, spoken with the flat of the tongue

M: "mm"

MB: "mmb"

N: "nn"

ND: "nn-duh"; like in the English word "end"

NG: "nn-guh"; similar to the "-ng" of the English word "sing"

NGW: "nn-gwuh"; "-ng" with a "-wuh" sound attached

NJ: "nn-juh"

O: "oh", long o sound

OA: "oah"; like an American Deep-South "oar"

OU/OW: "ow"; strongly pronounced

P: "puh"

R: "rr"; with a bit of a burr

S: "ss"

SH: "shuh"

T: "tuh"; sharply spoken with the tip of the tongue

TH: "tuuh"; dully spoken with the flat of the tongue

U: "oo"; long, not short

V: "vuh", "vv"

W: "wuh"

Y: "yuh"

Z: "zuh"; strongly spoken

ZH: "zhuuh"; not quite slurred

schwa: "uh"; like a shortened and lightened short u, the sound a has in the English word "about"

’: a glottal stop sound

GRAMMAR

Plurals

When a word has its first vowel as the first letter of the word, it stays the same and the last vowel is fully lengthened.

A short word with only one or two consonants and a single vowel has its vowel fully lengthened even if the vowel does begin the word.

When a word has a first-syllable vowel a, it is changed to e and a replaces the last vowel or is added in the last syllable if there is no vowel.

When a word has a first-syllable vowel e, it is changed to a and the last vowel is fully lengthened.

When a word has a first-syllable vowel i, it stays the same and î replaces the last vowel or is added in the last syllable if there is no vowel.

When a word has a first-syllable vowel u, it is changed to a and â replaces the last vowel or is added in the last syllable if there is no vowel.

Cases

There appears to be a genetive case involving -u in which any word that ends in another vowel comes to end in -u instead, and a word ending in a consonant has -u appended; therfore a word such as burk - "axe" becomes burku - "axe of". Also this affects plurals; the plural barâk - "axes" becomes barûk - "axes of".

There appears to be an ending -ûn which describes a person, thing, or place characterized by the root-word

Conjugations

Unfortunately nothing is known here.

Sentence structure

There appears to be no is/am/are verb (and perhaps no direct being verbs at all).

Adjectives appear to precede nouns most of the time even in compounds, but there are a couple of known exceptions.

No consonant mutations of any sort appear to exist.

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PRONOUNS

mên: you (nominative case)

mênu: you (accusative case)



NOUNS

aglâb: spoken language; pl aglâb

bizar: valley; pl bizîr

bund: head; pl banâd

burk: axe; pl barâk

dum: delving, excavation, underground hall; pl dûm

felak: chisel; pl falâk

gathol: fortress, pl gethal

gimli: star; pl gimlî

iglishmêk: gesture-language; pl iglishmîk

inbar: horn (as of an animal); pl inbâr

kheled: glass (substance)

Khuzd: Dwarf; pl Khazâd

Khuzdûl: Dwarvish, the language of the Khazâd

kibil: silver (metal)

Mahal: Dwarvish name for Aulë

mezarb: record, account, writing; pl mazârb

nâla: lode, vein, pl nêla

Nargûn: Mordor

nitîr: kindler, fire-starter; pl nitîr

rukhs: orc; pl rakhâs

shethur: cloud; pl shathûr

thark: staff; pl therak

Tharkûn: "staff-man", Gandalf's Dwarvish name

turg: beard; pl tarâg

uzbad: ruler, lord; pl uzbâd

ul: stream; pl ûl

zâram: pool, lake; pl zêram

zirak: spike; pl zirîk



ADJECTIVES

azan: dark, dim

baraz: red

dush: dark, evil

gabil: great

Khuzdul: Dwarvish, related to Dwarves

narg: black

rukhsul: orcish, related to orcs

shar: bald

sigin: long

tumun: hollow

zahar: bold

zigil: silver-colored



VERBS

felak: use a chisel, chisel, carve

felek: hew rock

gunud: delve underground, excavate, tunnel

niti: light, kindle, start a fire

zarab: record, write down, keep account



ADVERBS

None found; it has been suggested that perhaps adjectives also serve as adverbs without change in form.



OTHER

aya (ai-): upon

-u: in, of

-ul: having to do with, related to (thing, ideal, person) / child of

ûn-: son of

Категория: Исследования грамматики Кхуздӯла | Добавил: Naugperedhel (18.10.2013) | Автор: Laurefindë o Imladris E W
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